In ancient times these maps were compiled through observation and direct experience.
Besides the positions of celestial bodies, further information was considered: atmospheric phenomena, the colour and shape of luminaries in the sky, the clouds and landscape, the presence of certain animals, plants, sounds, visions, dreams and much more, including the abundant empty space existing among all visible ordinary forms.
Nothing was neglected as there was no perception of separation between sky and earth, visible and invisible.
Then this attitude began to disintegrate and an illusory perception based on sensory third-dimensional sight ultimately prevailed.
The access to other dimensions was shut and became available only to a restricted minority of beings, who were, according to circumstances, either tolerated and respected or persecuted, repressed and feared.
Image: Arabic astrological chart